PROTEINS

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The healthiest individuals are undoubtedly those, who have a sufficient intake of proteins, nearby us. Do you disagree with it? Okay, that’s your choice, but the nutritionists believe in that, the foods affluent in proteins are the best provisions or edibles available to you, you must not, at any cost, let them go without eating them. The over-intake of proteins is definitely the resultant of many diseases as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and various cardiovascular disorders. But, they are equally essential for us, because they operate or empower several major processes in our body. Why not to be a bit scientific?

PROTEINS:
Unlike vitamin, protein has a well-illustrated and well-conceived biological definition, as both are studied under the banner (don’t confuse it with Dr. Banner, hahaha, although, it has association with him due to biological studies) of ‘Biochemistry’. Proteins can be described as “the highly complex and large nitrogenous compounds or polymers which are made up of one or more chains of amino acids, linked by peptide bonds that form the basis of the life”. Thus, it can be concluded that, the amino acids are the building blocks of protein. According to a careful estimation, the human body is consisted of 100 trillion cells, and each cell has thousands of varied proteins, which act like tiny machines inside the cell.

AMINO ACIDS:
The organic compounds which consist of both amino (NH2) and carboxyl (R-CH-COOH) groups are termed as amino acids. There are 20 amino acids in total, which whilst changing their sequence, make up thousands of proteins. Those 20 amino acids that are categorized into two kinds: i. non-essential amino acids (that can be synthesized by the body) and essential amino acids (that can’t be synthesized by the human body) are: valine, alanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, threonine, proline, serine, methionine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine, histidine, glycine, glutamic acid, glutamine, aspartic acid, asparagine, arginine, phenylalanine, and cysteine.

According to the structure and the composition of the proteins, there are 4 and 3 types of proteins respectively. First, to go with the types of proteins in accordance to the composition:

TYPES-COMPOSITION:
There come three types of proteins under it and those are, fibrous proteins, globular proteins, membrane proteins.
FIBROUS PROTEINS:
The proteins which are aligned with the formation of muscle fiber, connective tissue, bone, and tendons are called fibrous proteins. The examples of these kinds of proteins can be, Titin, tubulin, spectrin, nebulin, myosin, keratin, elastin, coronin, F-spondin, collagen, and fibronectin.
GLOBULAR PROTEINS:
The proteins which are known for their functions of transporting, regulating, and catalyzing the fluids or compounds inside the body are regarded as globular proteins. These proteins are more water-soluble than the other classes/types of proteins. Albumins, thrombin, selectin, serum albumin, myoglobin, integrin, hemoglobin, fibrin, cadherin, beta globulin, and alpha globulin are the striking examples of globular proteins.
MEMBRANE PROTEINS:
These proteins relay signals within cells, allow cells to interact, and transport molecules within the molecules. Examples of such proteins are inclusive of, rhodopsin, histones, glucose transporter, hydrolase, CFTR, FOXP-2, P53, potassium channel, and scramblase.
TYPES-STRUCTURE:
PRIMARY STRUCTURE:
This is the basic structure of the formation of the proteins, where 20 amino acids join together and construct the proteins. The amino acids must have amino and carboxyl groups, a hydrogen atom, and a “R” group.
SECONDARY STRUCTURE:
The coiling or foiling of a polypeptide chain produces a protein in 3-D shape that is the secondary structure of the proteins. The coiling or foiling of the polypeptide chain divides this structure into two types: 1. Alpha helix structure- the structure of the protein here is in resemblance to a coiled spring, 2. Beta pleated structure- The structure appears to be folded or pleated.
TERTIARY STRUCTURE:
The comprehensive 3-D shape of the polypeptide chain of the protein emerges hither. For holding the protein in the tertiary structure, several bonds like hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bond, ionic bond, and Disulfide Bridge come in play.
QUATERNARY STRUCTURE:
The structure formed by the interactions between multiple polypeptide chains of a macromolecule of protein is to be termed as quaternary structure of the protein. In this structure, each polypeptide chain is referred to as a subunit.

 

WHY SHOULD YOU EAT MORE PROTEINS?
Following are the reasons or benefits, why proteins must be taken in larger amounts:

  • Proteins assist you linger around Healthy in correspondence to your augmenting age- The increase in the age ends in the weakening of the bones and muscles, but if the regular intake of the proteins is carried on, it will undeniably help you stay agile and alert even in the later part of your life.
  • These macromolecules repair your body quickly after the injuries- The fact can be proven with the consideration of another fact that, the building blocks of our body’s organs are mostly the proteins, so, they can renovate the injured parts of the body rapidly.
  • Don’t harm the healthy kidneys- The deceased kidneys can be ruined, if the intake of the proteins is more than the usual needs. But, the physically fit kidneys can bear as much protein foods as you can consume.
  • Lower the blood pressure of yours- Hypertension is the very common problem of today’s world, which thence becomes the cause of heart attacks and strokes. The increased intake of the proteins interestingly lowers the systolic blood pressure.
  • Lay the foundations of boosting the metabolism and increasing fat burning- Our body makes usage of the calories after the intake of the foods to digest and of the nutrients as well. It is referred to as the thermic effect. Proteins have higher thermic effect than lipids. They can burn as many as 260 calories/a day according to one study. Thus, if one wants to lose his weight, he must take more proteins.

SOURCES:
The RDI (recommended daily intake) for protein is 46g for women and 56g for the men according to www.healthline.com. The rich sources for the protein are the following:

Eggs, almonds, turkey breast, all types of fish, shrimp, peanuts, pumpkin seeds, lentils, lean beef, broccoli, milk, oats, white-meat poultry, cheese, soya beans, tilapia, lamb steak, pepperoni pizza, cashews, and chicken breast.

The compilation of resourceful facts in the article tends to focus upon what really matters in the daily lives of the people. The article is helpful for the students, knowing about the protein and its formation and for the general public as well.

 

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