Karl Marx once noted that, “The production of too many useful things results in the production of too many useless people”. He was certain in his words and so we are. But, the quest to accomplish or acquire more and anew has been the evident priority of the two-legged man, as the ‘progress’ is the ultimatum of humanity’s endeavors. From the primitive man to the man living in the world of 5G, the pursuit of achievements and modifications hasn’t been lowered down. The stunning and creative people living in the bygone times tended always to advance the living standards of theirs with the help of revolutionary inventions and some changes in their equipment, devices, machines, and cloth.
It is very obvious via the scrutiny of the earlier or later civilizations that, the man worked for the amelioration or betterment of already invented machines and methods enthusiastically, but the former 3 centuries are noted for major inventions that have certainly changed the world or reshaped it in fact. If a man, living in the times of Queen Elizabeth I, is reborn, he will not believe that, the creatures living with advanced tools now are humans and surely, he will state that the people of his time are the true people. Let’s begin to narrate all those revolutionary inventions. Before that, it must be jotted down or told that the order of the inventions here has not to do with the appearances of them in accordance to time; in fact they have been written here alphabetically:
The invention of English inventor, Charles Babbage, is customarily considered as the first computer, which was designed partially by him until his death in 1871. He, whilst working on the calculating machine, Difference Engine, invented the analytical engine for the lessening of time in the calculations. The essential components of this machine were: mill, store, reader, and the printer. The distinctive feature of this machine was its capability to change its operation by changing the instructions on punch cards.
The initial observation of the antibacterial chemicals isn’t very long ago; it certainly began a century ago. In 1909, a German physician, Paul Ehrlich, discovered a chemical called arsphenamine, which was very effective in the treatment of Syphilis. It is marked as the first modern antibiotic, though, Ehrlich was of the view, calling it ‘chemotherapy’ instead of antibiotic, because, the term ‘antibiotic’ wasn’t used thence. Fleming’s Penicillin opens many closed doors.
In 1685, German author, Johann Zahn, proffered a design for the first hand-held camera. But, it took almost 131 years to be a reality ultimately. In 1816, French inventor, Joseph Nicephore Niepce, created the first partly successful photograph using his home-made camera. The first surviving photo is in the perpetual assemblage of the antiques of the University of Texas, and it was produced by Niepce as well.
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE:
1858 is entitled the year, when the first internal combustion engine was appeared in the world, which was created by the Belgian engineer, Jean Joseph Étienne Lenoir. After him, German engineer, Nikolaus Otto modified Lenoir’s design and developed the first compressed charge internal combustion engine, known as modern internal combustion engine in 1876, the year which is famed for another innovative invention, Telephone. Internal combustion engine operates solely on the non-reacted working fluids whilst the reaction of reactants (oxidizing agents and fuel).
With the popularization of the concept of an ’Intergalactic Network’ of computers by J.C.R Licklider, the idea of universalized network of computers grew in its prominence. ARPANET or the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network, funded by the U.S Department of Defence, in the late 1960s, is the very first practicable archetype of the Internet. Moreover, the adoption of TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and IP (Internet Protocol), which set the limits for the transfer of data, by ARPANET, on January 1st, 1983, laid the basis of the modern Internet.
Before Thomas Alva Edison, several scientists like Humphry Davy, Warren de la Rue, Joseph Wilson Swan, and Henry Woodward are credited to strive at their best to commercialize their prototypes for the incandescent bulbs, but, all failed in their endeavours. In 1879, when Henry Woodward and his colleague sold their patent to Edison, he began working on it and on November 4th, 1879, filed a U.S patent for the improvement of the design. In 1880, his company, Edison Electric Light Company, began manufacturing commercial light bulbs.
Since before the World War II, the two-way radiophones were aiding the police and military personnel to communicate. But, they were inaccessible to the general public. The invention of the mobile phones is dated back to the 1970s, when at Bell Labs, U.S, the researchers incepted to experiment with the concept of a cellular network, containing of hexagonal cells. Successively, the Bell Labs Advance Mobile Phone System (AMPS) was running on the small scale, when Martin Cooper, an engineer at Motorola, was developing the hand-held phone. In 1984, DynaTac was launched by Motorola, which weighed almost a kilogram, is deemed the first modern mobile phone.
The history of the printing press is brim-full with the Chinese inventors. But, the printing press, which revolutionized the entire status of the inhabitants of Europe and replaced the wood with metal and printing blocks, is no other but Gutenberg Press, named after its inventor, Johannes Gutenberg, a political exile from Germany.
Wright brothers were cheerful after their glider, in 1902, was reviewed as a success, laying the sturdy foundation of aeronautical knowledge. Wilbur and Orville Wright made four flights at Kitty Hawk on December 17, 1903, after working hard onto the creation of a propulsion system, with the powered aircraft. 1903 Wright Flyer was, thus, the first successful airplane.
The wheel is one of the oldest inventions of the humans, as this conception is apparent from the studies of the earlier civilizations. Around 3500 B.C, the civilization of Mesopotamia created it first. In classical Greece, the modified design, wheelbarrow was appeared. Whereas, in the modern world, the first patent for the wheel was issued on August 26, 1791, to James Macomb.
It is to be minded that, such lists would certainly be sketched in the future. But, the difference would be in the names of the inventions.